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The Year 2016: Science, Arts, Politics



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The year 2016 may be considered a breakthrough year for science, arts, and politics.  Eleven Nobel Prizes have been awarded in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Peace, and Economics.  Bob Dylan became the first songwriter and musician to be awarded
the Nobel Prize for Literature; and Hillary Clinton was the first woman to be nominated to
a major American party, and also the first woman to draw over 10 million votes (over 60
million).  Donald Trump is the first president-elect with no prior public service, neither
political nor military.  (He was CEO). 
The Nobel Prize in Physics includes the trio of
Thouless, Haldane, and Kosterlitz for their pioneering work in “topological phases
of matter” opening a door to new and exotic phases of matter.  Sauvage,
Stoddart, and Feringa were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for
the “design and synthesis of molecular machines”, developing the world’s
smallest machines by linking molecules into a unit that can do work
when energy is added.  The machines, which are a thousand times
thinner than a strand of hair, include a tiny lift, mini motors,
and artificial muscles.  The Nobel Prize for Physiology or
Medicine was awarded to Japanese-born Yoshinori
Ohsumi who brought to light a process called
, meaning  “self-eating” in which
cells take unneeded or damaged material
and transport them to “recycling
compartments”.  His
discoveries have
led to a new
of how the cell
recycles its contents,
opening up a window to
several physiological processes
and even to the understanding of certain
diseases.  A Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to
Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos "for his resolute
efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to
an end”.  President Santos helped to negotiate a peace deal between the
Colombian government and Marxist FARC guerrillas (Revolutionary Armed
Forces of Colombia).  In comparison to other peace agreements in history it is one
of the most comprehensive and most complete.  Hart and Holstrom of Cambridge, Mass-
achusetts were awarded the Nobel (Memorial) Prize in Economic Sciences “for their contributions
in contract theory”, creating new theoretical tools considered valuable to real-life contracts. 
Bob Dylan, born Robert Zimmerman in 1941, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for “having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition."  An American songwriter, singer, artist, and writer, his body of work spans 54 years.  Although women have run for President since 1872 (Victoria Woodhull, Equal Rights Party), Hillary Clinton has surpassed all in number of votes with nearly 66 million, the next closest being Jill Stein with over 1 million votes, also in 2016.  Before that, Jill Stein drew close to a half-million votes in 2012 (Green Party) when Barack Obama was reelected President.

   Advances in Physics


                              Orlando, Florida

                                                                     Summer Olympics

          58th U.S. Presidential Election
Family Evolution


        London Expands Underground Transportation



                          Bullet Train